In our modern society, the problems of raising and educating children are mainly dealt with by teachers, because, unfortunately, the rhythm of their parents’ lives does not allow them to pay due attention to. Moms and dads are so absorbed in work that they do not have much time that could be devoted to their child. Alas, these are the realities of our time. Now even women in position are not averse to going to work. I myself on the forums often saw messages from men who were interested in how to get a pregnant woman to work , as their wives were apparently tired of sitting at home and asked their husbands to find some kind of work for them to diversify their lives.
This was a slight departure from the main topic of the publication, dedicated to teachers and students, and more precisely to what Comenius wrote about them in his works, and this will be discussed later. The teacher is expected not only to be benevolent and soft to children, but also to know the children. Looking closely at them, he will notice that not all children are the same, some differ from others in mind, character, and attitude to teaching. According to Comenius, six types of children give different combinations of these personality traits. The first type is students with a sharp mind, curious and supple, capable of classes. They only need to offer scientific food, and they will grow themselves. It was these children that Komensky had in mind when he demanded that they be given the opportunity of independent development.The second type is children with a sharp mind, obedient, but slow. They already need a teacher to encourage them to work. The third type is children with a sharp mind, inquisitive, but unbridled and stubborn. They need a special approach, since many of them are rooted in natural talents.
These children need to be helped kindly and patiently. The fourth type – children are obedient and inquisitive in learning, but slow and lethargic. The fifth type – children are stupid, indifferent and lethargic. The sixth type – children are stupid, stubborn, perverted and vicious. However, this is a rare type of child. It is necessary to seek the elimination of their vices, primarily stubbornness. This can be done by a teacher who believes in a child, in the possibility of his correction. A pedagogical optimism is inherent in a good teacher, coupled with an awareness of the importance of their work.For the first time on a philosophical and psychological basis, Comenius created an integrated pedagogical system, realizing the construction of pedagogy on a theoretical foundation. Of course, historically explainable limitation was characteristic of this theory. It is important that the scientist laid the tradition that opened the way for further searches for a truly scientific teaching on education.
Comenius first created an organic pedagogical system. He found the most important elements of this system and established their relationship; the purpose of education is the main structural element of the system; education and development; parties of education, with promotion as the main mental education, or education; school as the main centre of education; content and methods of teaching and moral education; school and family; teacher. The pedagogical system of Comenius is distinguished by an effective, realistic and democratic character. The value of the Comenius pedagogical system is determined by that it is based on its own practical pedagogical experience of its creator and the experience of other advanced schools, primarily “brotherly” ones, that it is built on excellent knowledge of the life and needs of the people in education, on the knowledge of children; she, this system, is warmed by the fiery love of her creator for people, a passionate desire to help them. That is why the Comenius system marked a revolution in the practice of schooling, dealt a decisive blow to the gloomy, scholastic, theological medieval school, and had a huge impact on the further development of pedagogical thought.The pedagogical system of Comenius also has weaknesses.
He still pays tribute to the past – religious education, which hinders the victory of emerging quite distinctly materialistic trends in his worldview. As correctly noted in one of the fundamental historical and pedagogical works, Comenius still “too subordinates upbringing to the laws of nature, often not seeing the direct connection of upbringing with the conditions of social life.” His sketch of the development of the psyche of the child reflects the pre-scientific stage of psychology. The perception of an object and its verbal designation are separated in time: “First a thing, then a word”. As one of the sources for building his system, he used the “holy books”.Nevertheless, the pedagogical system created by Komensky is the most important stage in the history of pedagogy, which determined the further development of the progressive direction of the science of education and training at the turn of the two historical eras. With difficulty his ideas came to life.
Although the next century was marked by the expansion of the network of educational institutions, the emergence of new types of schools,nevertheless, the growing needs for educated people in the conditions of economic and cultural development of the main European countries, in which capitalist relations are more clearly denoted, were not satisfied. The problem of personality has become increasingly occupying the minds of thinkers, scientists, writers. Among the French en lighteners of the XVIII century. a new pedagogical theory arises. Its creator was the great French philosopher – Jean-Jacques Rousseau.