For training in high jump with a running start, usually lead exercises are used:
a) step over a rope located at a height of 15-20 cm;
b) step over the rope after 4-5 steps;
c) perform this exercise, but at a fast pace;
d) perform a jump from 2-3 steps, pushing with one leg, landing on both legs at the same time (the child is repelled by the leg that is comfortable for him; the main attention is paid to the continuous execution of the movement and soft landing).
In the process of learning to jump, it is important to provide reliable insurance for children: the teacher becomes on the right side of the child’s landing site and should always be ready to support him with his hand in case of loss of balance.
The most appropriate is training in high jump from a run through a slightly stretched white rubber band with a length of 3–3.5 m, attached to stable objects. The advantage of rubber bands over the rope, widely used in kindergartens, is obvious: it is easy to pull it horizontally. If the child hooks on the gum, then this is not dangerous, since it simply stretches out and does not prevent it from landing.
When using the rope, it is difficult to avoid sagging; many children, when jumping over a rope (especially for the first time), are afraid to fall and become entangled in it. Typical for most preschool children, increasing when doing jumps from running is incomplete extension of the jogging leg in the knee joint at the time of repulsion, which significantly worsens the result. The main reason for this is the insufficiently active work of the foot in the final phase of repulsion.
In this case, the repulsion is carried out according to the “sluggish type”. It can be assumed that at this moment the body’s defenses come into effect, the function of which is primarily to protect the muscles and ligaments of the foot that are not yet strong, from overload, and therefore from damage .
Experience shows that strengthening the muscles and ligaments of the foot, improving its morphofunctional indicators is one of the important tasks of improving the motor function of a preschool child. Exercises recommended for the development of muscles and ligaments of the foot.
Walking on the ribbed surface of the board .
Kicking the ball, gymnastic stick from a standing and sitting position.
Capture of small objects (pebbles, cones, cubes specially prepared for this purpose, etc.) with your toes, followed by a throw.This exercise is interesting in the form of competition.
(Exercise for older preschool children.)
Step over gymnastic sticks, stuffed balls.
From a sitting position in the back, active flexion and extension of the feet.
I. p. – lying on his stomach. Tibia turns in and out. (pronation and supination).
Exercise “Funny legs.” Children are sitting on chairs, hands on the belt. At the “time” – put the right foot on the heel, bending it strongly in the lift (the toe looks up, the fingers are free); “two” – straighten the lift and touch the floor with your fingertips; on “three” – a foot on the heel; on the “four” – to attach.
High jump with a running start. The high jump is slightly reduced:
The take-off speed also decreases, you need to teach children to take a run naturally, without tension, with a free swing of their arms, bent at the elbow joints.
The last 3-4 steps are made somewhat faster than the previous ones. The last step before repulsion is usually longer. The jolted leg is placed from the heel, and then a quick transition to the entire foot is carried out. Particular attention must be paid to the continuous execution of the take-off and push of the guided leg.
The movement during repulsion is directed upwards. This is facilitated by the active work of the arms and the fly leg bent at the knee. The height of the child’s take-off depends on the consistency of the wave of the arms and the fly leg.
In flight, the jerked leg actively joins the fly leg and both knees are pulled to the chest. In the grouping position, the child crosses the bar.
Particular attention in high jumps should be given to landing. Here it is necessary to take into account the following: in cases where the child’s body, after crossing the bar, moves more downward than forward (a steep flight path), the landing is carried on toes with the subsequent transition to the entire foot. However, quite often there are cases when a child, having gained high speed during the take-off and pushed back and forth (gently sloping flight path;, lands after crossing the bar very far from the repulsion line. In these cases, the landing is carried out on the heels with the transition to the whole foot. Such a jump is most often observed when the bar is located at a much lower height than that which the child can overcome, and the take-off speed is quite high.
The softness of landing, achieved mainly due to the plastic bending of the legs at the knees, is an indispensable condition for any type of jump, including a high takeoff run.
When training in high jump from running start-up exercises are widely used: